How does one organize for collaborative action? It seems that only a small percentage of lots of attempts at collaboration are being successful.
Sometimes people naturally segregate, with each one basically doing his or her own thing, singing their own song. Sometimes people flock, flowing as individuals somewhat together, singing the same song. And, sometimes people become a whole that brings out their individual best, creating a harmonic through a specific synthesis of their unique voices. Three very different ways in which people interact: (1) segregating; (2) flocking; (3) uniting.
Does the difference matter? As people we tend to organize our interactions to increase our ability to achieve greater impact, resilience, and creativity with a more engaging experience. People seem to find these characteristics critical to being able to work together, and to being able to achieve movement on large-scale social issues.
What drives this difference in how people come together? Whether they segregate, flock, or unite? Current theories suggest this is driven by an endowment effect, leadership, or luck. The endowment effect suggests that the difference is because of something special the people have—they are smarter, wealthier, better educated, more experienced. The leadership effect suggests that an individual or group was able to envision and engage people in a specific form of interaction. The luck effect suggests it just happened somehow. Each of these three is hard to replicate.
Is there another, simpler explanation of why people tend to segregate, flock, or unite? Maybe complexity theory can show us something. Complexity theory looks for the simplest explanation: what is the simplest set of rules that guide the behavior of an individual can explain the observed social behavior when many individuals interact? Can a high variety of behaviors be better explained by (1) complexity in the way 3-4 simple principles intermingle or by (2) the complicated number of ways in which a wide breadth of number of variables with a depth of details interact? Complexity theory has shown that bird flocking can be explained by 3 principles: keep in the same general direction of the others; keep some separation from the others; and do not run into anything. Ant trails can be explained by 4 principles: take a couple of small steps and turn; smell for pheromones; follow pheromone trail to food (where pheromones get weaker); drop pheromones on way home (where pheromones get stronger).
Likewise, maybe complex human behavior can be explained by 4 simple principles—how people consciously or unconsciously answer four big questions:
- How much is there (Economic)
- Who decides and enforces (Political)
- What criteria (Cultural)
- What rules (Social)
Can we explain the 3 observed behaviors with specific kinds of responses to these four questions?
- Segregating. Assume scarcity of resources—there is not enough—with one primary relationship deciding and enforcing (like the boss for the whole group), focusing on the outcomes to be achieved with the scarce resources in a way that satisfies the primary relationship (in this case, the boss). Designed to separate, interactions are transactional, to improve one’s own health and growth. Get people to do the jobs required to achieve the outcomes through their own specific tasks. Each replaceable person is made to focus on doing only their own part. These tend to be the principles when you find dozens to hundreds of small groups each working on their own part of what seems to be a higher principle, like how to reform education or health care.
- Flocking. While assuming sufficiency of resources – there can be enough for me and for you – primarily for your own self or your own group, pay attention to your relationship with others, moving generally in the same direction, toward a similar outcome, focusing on how being aware of others can help move you towards the desired outcomes. Designed to flock, interactions are relational, working on one’s own together. Everyone focuses on doing their part, as it relates to others.
- Uniting. Assume abundance of resources – in relationship to the potential and dynamics of systems of resources, there is enough for all – with vibrant relationships for self, other, group, nature, and spirit. Designed to collaborate, focus on the interaction of the unique contributions each person makes to their own development and to the whole, as it tangibilizes the available potential.
What outcomes are we seeing? With segregation-based principles, paying attention only to one’s own outcomes, individual efforts are able to achieve moderate levels of impact, usually with low resilience to the ever-changing environment. Seeming success comes in spite of the huge costs of scarcity of not paying attention to others, creativity, and potential.
Many people are well aware of this experience, and experiment with flocking-based principles, where they share information with others, and attempt to work generally in the same direction. We find through cooperative coordination these efforts are able to achieve more significant impacts with a bit more resilience, as long as each of the involved groups is also successful.
We are also finding groups working with uniting-based principles, who are able to continuously bring out the best in each other, constantly exploring each other’s individual and collective potential, resilient in shifting with the ever-changing environment, often generating those changes.
We are trying these principles ourselves. Most of our work at Vibrancy focuses on taking on collaborative efforts based on uniting principles, whether large-scale social change, such as regional food systems, complementary currencies, toxic-free economies, retrofitting regions, or small-scale, community-based efforts, such as schools, companies, government agencies, or local communities. We are learning about how to apply these principles in a wide variety of settings.
We synthesize what we are finding about co-hosting collaboration in the O Process, where highest impact resilience starts with the “we” available in a shared deeper purpose, then clarifies what specific voices are needed to make unique contributions to achieve the deeper purpose. We can then understand together where to dedicate our individual and collective efforts to achieve the outcomes we desire collectively and individually within the resilient dynamics of the system of our interactions. It turns out to be much easier than most of us think, once we shift the principles guiding our interactions. From separating principles, we can only move alone, never together. That would be impossible, blue-sky thinking. From flocking principles, we can only move with others, never united. That would be impossible, soft and fuzzy process. From uniting, we can achieve our own health and growth, in relationship with others who are also contributing with us to what we want.