To understand how something works, we watch how it behaves–response. If its responses are consistent, we take a guess at how it behaves. This is what it does. If its behavior is not consistent, we need more information. We then test how it behaves by observing it in different circumstances–stimulus and response. If the responses are consistent with the stimulus, we take a guess at how it processes the stimulus and responds. If they are not consistent, we need more information. We look at how it works, internally, by taking it apart–stimulus and organism and response. With bodies of humans, the earth, and groups, this means cutting open the body and poking around.
In 1895 the invention of X-ray radiation revolutionized medicine. Doctors were able to see inside human bodies without cutting them open. Much safer and less intrusive. Without this dangerous invasive procedure, they were now able to observe behaviors and see how the human body worked internally.
In the mid-1900s, the invention of muography revolutionized how scientists observe the inside of large structures, such as Egyptian pyramids and volcanoes. They can now see how the large structures behave and what is happening inside, without destroying them or tearing into them.
In the mid-2010s, the invention of pactoecography revolutionized how people observe the inside of groups, their internal agreements. In addition to seeing how groups interact and behave, observed through their experiences and their outcomes, they can now use ecosynomic lenses to see the unconsciously accepted and consciously chosen agreements fields within which group interactions happen.